What we all wanted on Bitcoin: BitVM, Ordinals, Runes, L2 Solutions and DeFi

Bitcoin, the pioneering cryptocurrency, has undergone significant transformations since its inception in 2009. While it was initially designed as a peer-to-peer digital currency, its ecosystem has expanded to encompass a wide range of functionalities and innovations. This article delves into the key components of the modern Bitcoin ecosystem.

What we wall wanted on Bitcoin


Bitcoin BitVM, also known as Bitcoin Virtual Machine, is a groundbreaking development that emerged in October 2023. It unlocks Bitcoin’s ability to verify complex computations without modifying the network. Specifically, BitVM makes Bitcoin Turing-complete by using pre-existing components of its Script programming language. Prior to BitVM, Bitcoin’s Script language was not considered Turing-complete. However, with BitVM, the Bitcoin blockchain can now handle sophisticated computations, including smart contracts, while processing them off-chain to reduce congestion.

Ordinals: A New Dimension in Bitcoin

Ordinals represent a novel way to assign serial numbers to individual satoshis (the smallest unit of Bitcoin), effectively creating a mechanism to distinguish and track unique units of Bitcoin. This concept introduces a new layer of fungibility, where each satoshi can be uniquely identified and potentially imbued with additional metadata or value.

The implementation of Ordinals opens up possibilities for collectibles, digital art, and other applications that require the unique identification of specific Bitcoin units. By leveraging the inherent scarcity and security of Bitcoin, Ordinals can create new markets and use cases within the Bitcoin ecosystem.

Runes: Enhancing Bitcoin’s Script Language

Runes are a proposed enhancement to Bitcoin’s script language, aimed at improving its flexibility and functionality. Bitcoin’s current script language is purposefully limited to ensure security and simplicity, but this constraint also limits its potential for more complex transactions and smart contracts.

Runes seek to address these limitations by introducing a more expressive scripting language that retains Bitcoin’s security model. With Runes, developers can create more sophisticated smart contracts and dApps directly on the Bitcoin blockchain. This enhancement could significantly broaden the range of financial and non-financial applications that can be built on Bitcoin.

Layer 2 Solutions: Scaling Bitcoin

One of the most critical challenges facing Bitcoin is its scalability. The base layer of the Bitcoin network can handle only a limited number of transactions per second, which is insufficient for global adoption as a mainstream payment system. Layer 2 solutions, such as the Lightning Network, have emerged as a response to this limitation.

The Lightning Network allows for off-chain transactions, which are later settled on the Bitcoin blockchain. This approach significantly increases transaction throughput while maintaining the security and decentralization of the Bitcoin network. By enabling instant, low-cost transactions, the Lightning Network and other L2 solutions are crucial for scaling Bitcoin to accommodate a larger user base and more diverse use cases.

Stacks: Empowers smart contracts on Bitcoin.

Stacks is the leading Bitcoin Layer-2 protocol, enabling smart contracts and decentralized applications to use Bitcoin as a secure base layer. Unlike a traditional Bitcoin fork, Stacks doesn’t modify Bitcoin’s core features. Instead, it enhances Bitcoin’s functionality by introducing self-executing smart contracts. These contracts allow developers to build innovative applications on top of Bitcoin without compromising its security or decentralization. Stacks achieves this by running an autonomous state machine and consensus mechanism while publishing proof of transactions on the Bitcoin network12. By extending Bitcoin’s capabilities, Stacks unlocks billions in latent capital, making it a powerful addition to the crypto ecosystem3.

DeFi on Bitcoin: Expanding Financial Services

Decentralized finance (DeFi) has predominantly been associated with Ethereum and other smart contract platforms, but there is a growing movement to bring DeFi capabilities to Bitcoin. Bitcoin-native DeFi platforms and protocols aim to leverage Bitcoin’s unparalleled security and liquidity to offer a range of financial services, including lending, borrowing, trading, and asset management.

Projects like RSK (Rootstock) and Sovryn are leading the charge in developing DeFi solutions on Bitcoin. These platforms enable the creation of smart contracts and dApps that interact with Bitcoin, opening up new opportunities for financial innovation. By integrating DeFi with Bitcoin, users can benefit from the robustness of the Bitcoin network while accessing a wide array of decentralized financial services, including but not limited to:

  • Interlay: Bridges Bitcoin with other blockchains.
  • Babylon: Enables decentralized lending and borrowing.
  • Sovryn: A Bitcoin-native DeFi platform.


The Bitcoin ecosystem is rapidly evolving, driven by innovations such as Ordinals, Runes, Layer 2 solutions, and DeFi on Bitcoin. These advancements are expanding the functionality and scalability of Bitcoin, ensuring its relevance and utility in the ever-changing landscape of digital finance. As these technologies mature, Bitcoin is poised to become not just a store of value, but a versatile platform for a wide range of applications and services. The continued development and integration of these components will be crucial in shaping the future of Bitcoin and its role in the global financial system.