A quick introduction on L1 & L2 Blockchains

A quick Introduction on L1 & L2 Blockchains: Unraveling Blockchain Trends


A quick Introduction on L1 & L2 Blockchains. The world of blockchain technology has witnessed rapid evolution and innovation over the past decade, not to mention the past year. With Layer 1 blockchains at the forefront of this transformation, they serve as the foundational layer for dApps and smart contracts. In this article, we will explore the trends in L1 blockchains.

I. The Rise of L1 Blockchains

Diversity in L1 Platforms:

The blockchain space has become more diverse with the emergence of various L1 platforms like Ethereum, Solana, Avalanche, Injective, and Celestia. This diversity caters to different use cases and user preferences.

Scalability and Throughput:

Scalability has been a critical issue for blockchain networks. This challenge has lead to the development of solutions such as sharding and proof-of-stake consensus mechanisms. L1 blockchains are actively exploring ways to enhance throughput, reduce latency, and lower transaction fees, addressing the scalability concerns that have plagued earlier iterations of blockchain technology.


Solana stands out in the blockchain landscape due to its unique use case centered around high-performance decentralized applications (DApps) and scalable blockchain solutions. Unlike many other blockchain platforms, Solana focuses on addressing the scalability trilemma—balancing decentralization, security, and scalability. Solana achieves remarkable throughput with its innovative consensus mechanism. Proof of History (PoH) timestamps transactions before they are added to the blockchain. By incorporating a combination of Proof of Stake (PoS) and other cutting-edge technologies, Solana has been able to process thousands of transactions per second (TPS), making it one of the fastest blockchain networks. This exceptional speed and efficiency make Solana particularly well-suited for applications demanding real-time data processing.


Avalanche distinguishes itself in the blockchain ecosystem through its unique consensus mechanism. The Avalanche consensus protocol, which offers unprecedented flexibility and efficiency. Unlike traditional proof-of-work (PoW) or proof-of-stake (PoS) systems, Avalanche utilizes a novel approach that allows multiple subnets to operate independently, each with its own set of rules and validators. This enables support to a wide array of decentralized applications and networks within its ecosystem. Avalanche’s architecture excels in providing rapid transaction finality. With confirmation times often measured in seconds, this makes it an ideal platform for applications requiring quick and secure transactions. The adaptability, combined with an emphasis on high throughput and low latency, positions Avalanche as a versatile blockchain platform capable of accommodating diverse decentralized finance (DeFi), enterprise, and Web3 applications.


Injective Protocol stands out in the blockchain space due to its unique use case as a decentralized finance (DeFi) protocol that focuses on creating a fully decentralized and permissionless derivatives exchange. It is committed to providing users with borderless, censorship-resistant access to a wide range of financial markets. Injective enables the creation and trading of a variety of derivative products, including futures and perpetual swaps, without relying on a centralized authority. The protocol leverages a novel form of consensus known as Tendermint, offering high-speed and secure transactions. Furthermore, Injective’s architecture allows users to create and trade on their own custom markets. By addressing the limitations of traditional financial systems and centralized derivatives exchanges, Injective Protocol pioneers a decentralized future for derivatives trading.


Celestia, a groundbreaking project that captured the crypto community’s attention in 2023, introduced a unique use case that transcends traditional blockchain applications. Unlike conventional cryptocurrencies, Celestia aims to create a decentralized and incentivized space-based network. Leveraging satellite technology and blockchain, Celestia enables users to participate in a global, decentralized satellite network. This innovative use case opens avenues for secure, censorship-resistant communication, data transfer. As the project gains traction, its unique combination of technology and blockchain is poised to reshape the future of decentralized networks and space-based applications.

II. Ethereum’s Dominance and Challenges:

A quick Introduction on L1 & L2 Blockchains

Market Leadership:

Ethereum’s dominance in the blockchain space is evident through its large developer community, extensive ecosystem, and a vast number of deployed smart contracts. Its first-mover advantage has solidified its position as the go-to platform for decentralized applications.

Challenges with Scalability and Gas Fees:

Despite its success, Ethereum has faced challenges related to scalability and high gas fees. These issues have led to congestion on the network during periods of high demand, affecting user experience and transaction costs. As Ethereum continues to evolve, L2s will play a pivotal role in its growth trajectory. Expect further innovations, collaborations, and adoption as the Ethereum community embraces both L1 and L2 solutions.

III. The Emergence of Layer 2 Solutions:

Addressing Scalability Challenges:

Layer 2 solutions have emerged as a key strategy to address the scalability concerns of L1 blockchains. These solutions, built on top of existing blockchains, aim to process transactions off-chain, reducing the burden on the main chain.

Ethereum’s L2 Ecosystem:

Ethereum has taken significant steps to integrate Layer 2 solutions. Projects like Optimistic Rollups and zk-Rollups have gained popularity for their ability to enhance scalability while maintaining the security and decentralization features of the Ethereum mainnet.

Increasing Adoption of L2 Solutions aids in Ethereum’s success:

The adoption of Layer 2 solutions is gaining momentum as more projects migrate to these scaling solutions. With reduced transaction fees and faster confirmation times, L2 solutions provide an attractive option for developers and users alike.

Ethereum acts as a validator for its Layer 2 (L2) solutions through a mechanism called optimistic rollups. Layer 2 solutions are built on top of the Ethereum blockchain. They aim to improve scalability and reduce transaction fees. This is done by processing certain transactions off-chain while relying on the Ethereum mainnet for security and finality.

In optimistic rollups, transactions are initially processed on the Layer 2 sidechain, and only a summary of those transactions, known as a “rollup,” is periodically submitted to the Ethereum mainnet. Ethereum mainnet acts as a validator. It checks the validity of these rollups and ensuring that they comply with the rules of the protocol. Validators on the Ethereum mainnet do not need to verify every transaction on the Layer 2 sidechain, making the process more scalable.

As more transactions occur on Layer 2 solutions, the increased activity generates additional fees and usage of the Ethereum network. Ethereum employs a fee market where users pay transaction fees, and these fees contribute to the network’s security and are, in part, burned as gas fees. Increased traffic on Layer 2 solutions indirectly leads to more fees being burned on the Ethereum mainnet. The burn mechanism is beneficial for Ethereum because it reduces the overall supply of Ether (ETH), potentially making it a deflationary asset.

The success of Ethereum is tied to the adoption and utilization of Layer 2 solutions. As they alleviate the network congestion and high transaction fees experienced during periods of high demand. By offloading some transaction processing to Layer 2 solutions and increasing overall network activity, Ethereum aims to enhance scalability, reduce fees, and strengthen its position as a leading blockchain platform.

A quick Introduction on L1 & L2 Blockchains: Conclusion

A quick Introduction on L1 & L2 Blockchains, still created one of our longer blog posts. That is because there is plenty of content to go over, which we didn’t even get into. The trends in L1 blockchains reflect a dynamic and evolving landscape. As the blockchain space continues to mature, scalability solutions and advancements in technology will play a pivotal role in shaping the future of decentralized applications. Ethereum’s commitment to addressing scalability challenges positions it for sustained growth.